The Universal Declaration of Human Rights with Jewish Source, Rabbis for Human Rights (http://tiny.cc/mCJW4)

 

Masechet Zechuyot Ha'Adam:

The Universal Declaration of Human Rights

With Corresponding Jewish Text References, In English and Hebrew Introduction to the document:

On December 10, 1948 the General Assembly of the United Nations adopted and proclaimed the Universal Declaration of Human Rights the full text of which appears in the following pages. Following this historic act the Assembly called upon all Member countries to publicize the text of the Declaration and "to cause it to be disseminated, displayed, read and expounded principally in schools and other educational institutions, without distinction based on the political status of countries or territories."

International human rights law was made necessary in large part because of the atrocities committed by the Nazis against the Jews during the Holocaust. The Jewish focus on the creation of the human being in the divine image, the right of each person to be free from oppression and shame, and the idea that we cannot forget that we were strangers in the land of Egypt link Jewish values with those expressed in the Universal Declaration. As Jews, we study this text as a sacred text, one that ensures that the world never forgets the obligations of its citizens to respect each other at their core. Please notice that the text first listed in each section is from the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. It is followed by a corresponding Jewish source in English and then in Hebrew.

PREAMBLE Whereas recognition of the inherent dignity and of the equal and inalienable rights of all members of the human family is the foundation of freedom, justice and peace in the world, -------- GENESIS 1:27 -28 ---------------------------------------------------- Translation Original And God created human in God’s own image, in the image of God, God created him; male and female God created them. And God blessed them. [JPS translation [1]] וַיִּבְרָא אֱלֹהִים אֶת הָאָדָם בְּצַלְמוֹ בְּצֶלֶם אֱלֹהִים בָּרָא אֹתוֹ זָכָר וּנְקֵבָה בָּרָא אֹתָם: וַיְבָרֶךְ אֹתָם אֱלֹהִים [1] http://www.jewishpub.org/product.php?id=140


-------- *WHEREAS DISREGARD AND CONTEMPT FOR HUMAN RIGHTS HAVE RESULTED IN BARBAROUS ACTS WHICH HAVE OUTRAGED THE CONSCIENCE OF MANKIND, AND THE ADVENT OF A WORLD IN WHICH HUMAN BEINGS SHALL ENJOY FREEDOM OF SPEECH AND BELIEF AND FREEDOM FROM FEAR AND WANT HAS BEEN PROCLAIMED AS THE HIGHEST ASPIRATION OF THE COMMON PEOPLE…* ------------------ -------- ISAIAH 58:6-9 ------------------------------------------------------- Translation Original This is the fast that I desire: to unlock fetters of wickedness, and untie the cords of the yoke. To let the oppressed go free; to break off every yoke. It is to share your bread with the hungry, and to take the wretched poor into your homes; When you see the naked, to clothe him, and not to ignore your own kin. Then shall your light burst through like the dawn and your healing shall spring up quickly; Your Vindicator shall march before you, the presence of God shall be your rear guard. Then, when you call, God will answer. When you cry, God will say, "Here I am."[JPS translation [1]] הלוא זה צום אבחרהו פתח חרצבות רשע התר אגדות מוטה ושלח רצוצים חפשים וכל מוטה תנתקוהלוא פרס לרעב לחמך ועניים מרודים תביא בית כי תראה ערם וכסיתו ומבשרך לא תתעלם אז יבקע כשחר אורך וארכתך מהרה תצמח והלך לפניך צדקך כבוד יקוק יאספך אז תקרא ויקוק יענה תשוע ויאמר הנני   [1] http://www.jewishpub.org/product.php?id=140


-------- *WHEREAS A COMMON UNDERSTANDING OF THESE RIGHTS AND FREEDOMS IS OF THE GREATEST IMPORTANCE FOR THE FULL REALIZATION OF THIS PLEDGE,* --- Now, Therefore THE GENERAL ASSEMBLY proclaims THIS UNIVERSAL DECLARATION OF HUMAN RIGHTS as a common standard of achievement for all peoples and all nations, to the end that every individual and every organ of society, keeping this Declaration constantly in mind, shall strive by teaching and education to promote respect for these rights and freedoms and by progressive measures, national and international, to secure their universal and effective recognition and observance, both among the peoples of Member States themselves and among the peoples of territories under their jurisdiction. /May it be your will, Source of Life, that every one of your creations strive to fulfill your vision of peace and create a world in which everyone lives in freedom, free from fear. May we work to learn about these rights, educate others, and reinforce them daily in our lives. If there are those who do not live in freedom, then none of us truly is free. If there are those who live without basic dignity, then all of our dignity is compromised. We ask for your blessing on our leaders, who work to enshrine these rights in law. Give them the gift of true understanding and may we never experience war and devastation as human beings again./ Article 1. All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights. They are endowed with reason and conscience and should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood. -------- GENESIS RABBAH 24:7 ------------------------------------------------- Translation Original Ben ‘Azzai said: “'This is the book of the descendants of Adam' is a great principle of the Torah.” R. Akiva said: "'Love your neighbor as yourself' (Leviticus 19:18) is a great principle, so that you must not say, "Since I have been put to shame, let my neighbor be put to shame, since I have been cursed, let my neighbor be cursed." R. Tanhuma said: "If you do so, know whom you put to shame, for 'In the image of God did God make him'" (Genesis 5:1). [AJWS translation] בן עזאי אומר זה ספר תולדות אדם זה כלל גדול בתורה, ר"ע אומר (ויקרא יט) ואהבת לרעך כמוך, זה כלל גדול בתורה, שלא תאמר הואיל ונתבזיתי יתבזה חבירי עמי הואיל ונתקללתי יתקלל חבירי עמי, א"ר תנחומא אם עשית כן דע למי אתה מבזה, בדמות אלהים עשה אותו.  


Article 2. Everyone is entitled to all the rights and freedoms set forth in this Declaration, without distinction of any kind, such as race, colour, sex, language, religion, political or other opinion, national or social origin, property, birth or other status. Furthermore, no distinction shall be made on the basis of the political, jurisdictional or international status of the country or territory to which a person belongs, whether it be independent, trust, non-self-governing or under any other limitation of sovereignty. -------- MISHNA, SANHEDRIN 4:5 ----------------------------------------------- Translation Original How do they exhort witnesses testifying in capital cases? They brought them in and admonished them: Perhaps you will speak from supposition, and from hearsay, evidence from the mouth of a witness, or "We heard it from the mouth of a trustworthy person"; or, perhaps you do not know that afterwards we will test you by inquiry and examination. Know that capital cases are not as monetary suits: monetary suits - a person may give his property and effect atonement; capital cases - his blood and the blood of his offspring depend on him until the end of the world, for we find concerning Cain who killed his brother, it is written, "the bloods of your brother cry" (Genesis 4:10); it does not say, "your brother's blood" but "bloods" - his blood and the blood of his offspring. Another interpretation of "brother's bloods" - his blood was dashed on the trees and on the stones. Therefore man was created singly, to teach you that whoever destroys a single soul of Israel, Scripture accounts it as if he had destroyed a full world; and whoever saves one soul of Israel, Scripture accounts it as if he had saved a full world. And for the sake of peace among men, that one should not say to his fellow, "My father is greater than yours;" and that heretics should not say, "There are many powers in Heaven." Again, to declare the greatness of the Holy One, blessed be He, for man stamps out many coins with one die, and they are all alike, but the King, the King of kings, the Holy One, blessed be He, stamped each man with the seal of Adam, and not one of them is like his fellow. Therefore each and every one is obliged to say, "For my sake the world was created." And lest you say, "What do we need with this trouble?" Has it not already been said, "He being a witness, whether he has seen or known, if he does not utter it..." (Leviticus 5:1). And should you say, "What need is there for us to be responsible for the blood of this one?" Surely it is said, "And when the wicked perish, there is joy" (Proverbs 11:10). [Moreshet translation] כיצד מאיימין את העדים על עדי נפשות היו מכניסין אותן ומאיימין עליהן שמא תאמרו מאומד ומשמועה עד מפי עד ומפי אדם נאמן שמענו או שמא אי אתם יודעין שסופינו לבדוק אתכם בדרישה ובחקירה הוו יודעין שלא כדיני ממונות דיני נפשות דיני ממונות אדם נותן ממון ומתכפר לו דיני נפשות דמו ודם זרעיותיו תלוין בו עד סוף העולם שכן מצינו בקין שהרג את אחיו שנאמר (בראשית ד) דמי אחיך צועקים אינו אומר דם אחיך אלא דמי אחיך דמו ודם זרעיותיו דבר אחר דמי אחיך שהיה דמו מושלך על העצים ועל האבנים לפיכך נברא אדם יחידי ללמדך שכל המאבד נפש אחד מישראל מעלה עליו הכתוב כאילו איבד עולם מלא וכל המקיים נפש אחת מישראל מעלה עליו הכתוב כאילו קיים עולם מלא ומפני שלום הבריות שלא יאמר אדם לחבירו אבא גדול מאביך ושלא יהו מינין אומרים הרבה רשויות בשמים ולהגיד גדולתו של הקדוש ברוך הוא שאדם טובע כמה מטבעות בחותם אחד וכולן דומין זה לזה ומלך מלכי המלכים הקדוש ברוך הוא טבע כל אדם בחותמו של אדם הראשון ואין אחד מהן דומה לחבירו לפיכך כל אחד ואחד חייב לומר בשבילי נברא העולם ושמא תאמרו מה לנו ולצרה הזאת והלא כבר נאמר (ויקרא ה) והוא עד או ראה או ידע אם לא יגיד וגומר ושמא תאמרו מה לנו לחוב בדמו של זה והלא כבר נאמר (משלי יא) באבוד רשעים רנה:   Article 5. No one shall be subjected to torture or to cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment:


Article 7. *All are equal before the law and are entitled without any discrimination to equal protection of the law. All are entitled to equal protection against any discrimination in violation of this Declaration and against any incitement to such discrimination.* -------- DEUTERONOMY 1:16-17 ------------------------------------------------- Translation Original I charged your magistrates at that time as follows, "Hear out your fellows, and decide justly between any person and a fellow Israelite or a stranger. You shall not be partial in judgment: hear out low and high alike. Fear no person, for judgment is God's. And any matter that is too difficult for you, you shall bring to me and I will hear it." [JPS translation [1] edited for gender-neutrality] וָאֲצַוֶּה אֶת שֹׁפְטֵיכֶם בָּעֵת הַהִוא לֵאמֹר שָׁמֹעַ בֵּין אֲחֵיכֶם וּשְׁפַטְתֶּם צֶדֶק בֵּין אִישׁ וּבֵין אָחִיו וּבֵין גֵּרוֹ: לֹא תַכִּירוּ פָנִים בַּמִּשְׁפָּט כַּקָּטֹן כַּגָּדֹל תִּשְׁמָעוּן לֹא תָגוּרוּ מִפְּנֵי אִישׁ כִּי הַמִּשְׁפָּט לֵאלֹהִים הוּא וְהַדָּבָר אֲשֶׁר יִקְשֶׁה מִכֶּם תַּקְרִבוּן אֵלַי וּשְׁמַעְתִּיו: [1] http://www.jewishpub.org/product.php?id=140


-------- *ARTICLE 8.*EVERYONE HAS THE RIGHT TO AN EFFECTIVE REMEDY BY THE COMPETENT NATIONAL TRIBUNALS FOR ACTS VIOLATING THE FUNDAMENTAL RIGHTS GRANTED HIM BY THE CONSTITUTION OR BY LAW. ------------------- -------- DEUTERONOMY 16:18-20 ------------------------------------------------ Translation Original You shall appoint magistrates and officials for your tribes, in all the settlements that Adonai your God is giving you, and they shall govern the people with due justice. You shall not judge unfairly: you shall show no partiality; you shall not take bribes, for bribes blind the eyes of the discerning and upset the plea of the just. Justice, justice shall you pursue, that you may thrive and occupy the land that Adonai your God is giving you. [JPS translation [1] edited for gender-neutrality] שֹׁפְטִים וְשֹׁטְרִים תִּתֶּן לְךָ בְּכָל שְׁעָרֶיךָ אֲשֶׁר ה' אֱלֹהֶיךָ נֹתֵן לְךָ לִשְׁבָטֶיךָ וְשָׁפְטוּ אֶת הָעָם מִשְׁפַּט צֶדֶק: לֹא תַטֶּה מִשְׁפָּט לֹא תַכִּיר פָּנִים וְלֹא תִקַּח שֹׁחַד כִּי הַשֹּׁחַד יְעַוֵּר עֵינֵי חֲכָמִים וִיסַלֵּף דִּבְרֵי צַדִּיקִם: צֶדֶק צֶדֶק תִּרְדֹּף לְמַעַן תִּחְיֶה וְיָרַשְׁתָּ אֶת הָאָרֶץ אֲשֶׁר ה' אֱלֹהֶיךָ נֹתֵן לָךְ: [1] http://www.jewishpub.org/product.php?id=140


-------- *ARTICLE 12.*NO ONE SHALL BE SUBJECTED TO ARBITRARY INTERFERENCE WITH HIS PRIVACY, FAMILY, HOME OR CORRESPONDENCE, NOR TO ATTACKS UPON HIS HONOUR AND REPUTATION. EVERYONE HAS THE RIGHT TO THE PROTECTION OF THE LAW AGAINST SUCH INTERFERENCE OR ATTACKS. --------- -------- BABYLONIANTALMUD, BABA METZIA 58B ----------------------------------- Translation Original A Tanna retold this before Rabbi Nachman son of Yitzchak: One who embarrasses another in public, it is as if he shed his blood. [AJWS translation] תני תנא קמיה דרב נחמן בר יצחק: כל המלבין פני חבירו ברבים כאילו שופך דמים.


Article 25. (1) Everyone has the right to a standard of living adequate for the health and well-being of himself and of his family, including food, clothing, housing and medical care and necessary social services, and the right to security in the event of unemployment, sickness, disability, widowhood, old age or other lack of livelihood in circumstances beyond his control. (2) Motherhood and childhood are entitled to special care and assistance. All children, whether born in or out of wedlock, shall enjoy the same social protection. -------- DEUTERONOMY 27: 18-19 ----------------------------------------------- Translation Original Cursed be the one who misdirects a blind person on his/her way. -- And all the people shall say, Amen. Cursed be the one who subverts the rights of the stranger, the orphan, and the widow. -- And all the people shall say, Amen. [JPS translation [1]edited for gender-neutrality] אָרוּר מַשְׁגֶּה עִוֵּר בַּדָּרֶךְ וְאָמַר כָּל הָעָם אָמֵן: אָרוּר מַטֶּה מִשְׁפַּט גֵּר יָתוֹם וְאַלְמָנָה וְאָמַר כָּל הָעָם אָמֵן: [1] http://www.jewishpub.org/product.php?id=140


Article 26. (1) Everyone has the right to education. Education shall be free, at least in the elementary and fundamental stages. Elementary education shall be compulsory. Technical and professional education shall be made generally available and higher education shall be equally accessible to all on the basis of merit. (2) Education shall be directed to the full development of the human personality and to the strengthening of respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms. It shall promote understanding, tolerance and friendship among all nations, racial or religious groups, and shall further the activities of the United Nations for the maintenance of peace. (3) Parents have a prior right to choose the kind of education that shall be given to their children. -------- BABYLONIAN TALMUD, KIDDUSHIN 30B ------------------------------------ Translation Original The rabbis taught: A father has these [Biblical] obligations to his son: to circumcise him, to redeem him, to teach him Torah, to get him a wife, and to teach him a trade. Some say, also to teach him to swim. Rabbi Judah said, "Anyone who does not teach his son a trade teaches him thievery." Thievery? Really? Rather, "it is as though he teaches him thievery." What is the difference between the two? Whether or not one can teach his child business. תנינא להא דת"ר: האב חייב בבנו למולו, ולפדותו, וללמדו תורה, ולהשיאו אשה, וללמדו אומנות; וי"א: אף להשיטו במים; רבי יהודה אומר: כל שאינו מלמד את בנו אומנות - מלמדו ליסטות. ליסטות ס"ד? אלא, כאילו מלמדו ליסטות .מאי בינייהו? איכא בינייהו, דאגמריה עיסקא.


Article 26.

(1) Everyone has the right to education. Education shall be free, at least in the elementary and fundamental stages. Elementary education shall be compulsory. Technical and professional education shall be made generally available and higher education shall be equally accessible to all on the basis of merit.

(2) Education shall be directed to the full development of the human personality and to the strengthening of respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms. It shall promote understanding, tolerance and friendship among all nations, racial or religious groups, and shall further the activities of the United Nations for the maintenance of peace.

(3) Parents have a prior right to choose the kind of education that shall be given to their children.

Babylonian Talmud, Kiddushin 30b

Translation Original
The rabbis taught: A father has these [Biblical] obligations to his son: to circumcise him, to redeem him, to teach him Torah, to get him a wife, and to teach him a trade. Some say, also to teach him to swim. Rabbi Judah said, "Anyone who does not teach his son a trade teaches him thievery." Thievery? Really? Rather, "it is as though he teaches him thievery." What is the difference between the two? Whether or not one can teach his child business.
תנינא להא דת"ר: האב חייב בבנו למולו, ולפדותו, וללמדו תורה, ולהשיאו אשה, וללמדו אומנות; וי"א: אף להשיטו במים; רבי יהודה אומר: כל שאינו מלמד את בנו אומנות - מלמדו ליסטות. ליסטות ס"ד? אלא, כאילו מלמדו ליסטות .מאי בינייהו? איכא בינייהו, דאגמריה עיסקא.